The Triune nature of God and the Deity of Christ                                                                                  by Jack Kettler

 Part One, an Introduction:

 It is has been rare to find someone who could accurately state the Christian doctrine of the triune nature of God and at the same time, reject it. It speaks volumes when someone denies a position without understanding the position that is being rejected. If someone cannot state an opposing position, that individual does not understand it. The common reason for many in rejecting the triune nature of God is that they claim not to understand or comprehend that kind of being. If God is God and we are men, it should not surprise us that we cannot wholly comprehend God. If we could do this, then God would be nothing more than a finite entity.

 On this line of reasoning about an easy to understand God, C.S. Lewis noted:


“If Christianity were something we were making up, of course we would make it easier. But it is not. We cannot compete in simplicity with people who are inventing religions. How could we? We are dealing with fact. Of course anyone can be simple if he doesn't have any facts to bother about.” (1)

 The standard for rejecting a belief should not necessarily be an inability to comprehend it entirely. Why? For example, almost no one can understand or comprehend how their brains function. It could be asked, why not reject our brains? In this respect, many individuals are operational rationalists. Rationalism is a philosophy where human reason becomes the ultimate standard of truth. For the Christian, the Bible is our standard of truth. Rejecting rationalism does not mean that Christians are irrational for believing in the triune nature of God. Nothing could be further from the truth.

 It should be noted that epistemology is the study of how we know things. There are three theories of gaining knowledge, 1. Empiricism (a view that experience, especially the senses, is the only source of knowledge), 2. Rationalism (a belief that appeals to man's independent reason as a source of knowledge) and 3. Dogmatism or scripturalism (all knowledge must be contained within a system and deduced from its starting principles, in the Christian case, the Bible). The Bible is the Christian's starting principle or presupposition.

 The triune biblical nature of God can be stated as three propositions:


1.      There is only one God

2.      There are three equally divine, distinct and eternal Persons called God

3.      Therefore, these three equally divine and eternal Persons are the one God

 Louis Berkhof's Systematic Theology correctly defines the doctrine of God's triune nature. The belief is stated likewise in a series of propositions:

          1.      There is in the Divine Being but one indivisible essence;

          2.      In this one Divine Being there are three Persons or individual subsistences, Father,

          3.      Son, and Holy Spirit;

          4.      The whole undivided essence of God belongs equally to each of the three persons;

         5.      The subsistence and operation of the three persons in the divine Being is marked by a certain definite order;

        6.      There are certain personal attributes by which the three persons are distinguished. (2)

 The Father is not the Son, the Son is not the Father; the Son is not the Spirit; and the Father is not the Spirit. God is not one person who manifests or reveals himself in three different modes, or three gods who are one in purpose. There is only one God in essence, who truly exists as three divine persons. These three persons are God, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

 The magisterial Westminster Confession of Faith summarizes this conception of the Godhead:


“In the unity of the Godhead there are three persons, of one substance, power and eternity; God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost. The Father is of none, neither begotten nor proceeding; the Son is eternally begotten of the Father; the Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son.” (3)

 Part 2, Scriptural proofs that defend this conception of God.

 The following Scriptures demonstrate that there is a plurality of persons in the Godhead; in other words, you see more than one divine person in each passage listed:

 Genesis 1:26, 3:22, 11:7; Isaiah 6:8; 48:16; 61:1-2; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Zechariah 10:12; Matthew 28:19; Luke 4:18-19; John 1:1-3; John 14:23; 2 Corinthians 13:14; Colossians 2:2; Hebrews 1:8-10; Hebrews 3:7-11; 1 Peter 1:2; and 1 John 2:24

 Yet, the Bible makes it indisputable that there is only one God:


“Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD.” (Deuteronomy 6:4)


“…I am he: before me there was no God formed. Neither shall there be after me, I, even I, am LORD, beside me there is no saviour.” (Isaiah 43:10)


“…I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me, there is no God.” (Isaiah 44:6)


“Is there a God beside me? Yea, there is no God; I know not any?” (Isaiah 44:8)

 The Bible teaches the Father is God in the following verses:


“To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.” (Romans 1:7)


“Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.” (1Corinthians 1:3)


“Grace be to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.” (2Corinthians 1:2)

 The Father is Jehovah:

 In Exodus 3:13, 14 God (Elohim) reveals Himself as the “I Am” or Jehovah the Lord.

 The Father is both Jehovah and Elohim:


“These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD [Jehovah] God [Elohim] made the earth and the heavens.” (Genesis 2:4)


“And the LORD [Jehovah] God [Elohim] planted a garden Eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.” (Genesis 2:8)


“And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God (Elohim) of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? What shall I say unto them? And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he Said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM [Jehovah] hath sent me unto you.” (Exodus 3:13.14)

 The Son is proved God by the following verses:


“But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom.” (Hebrews 1:8)


“For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.” (Colossians 2:9)


“And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.” (1John 5:20)


“Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.” (Titus 2:13)

 Jesus is Jehovah:


“Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say you, before Abraham was, I am.” [Jehovah] (John 8:58)

Jesus is using the divine name from Exodus 3:14. The Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Testament) uses (Ego eimi) for Jehovah (I AM) in this verse. John 8:58 in the Greek uses the same formulation (Ego eimi). It is inescapable that Jesus is Jehovah.


“That unto me [Jehovah] every knee shall bow…” (Isaiah 45:23)


“That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth.” (Philippians 2:10)

The New Testament in Philippians 2:10 tells us that this verse from Isaiah speaks of Jesus. Jesus is Jehovah.

The following passage speaks of Jehovah:


“Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell among them.” (Psalms 68:18)

The next verse from Ephesians speaks of Jesus with the wording from Psalms 68:18. This makes Jesus Jehovah.

“Wherefore he saith, when he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.” (Ephesians 4:8)

Jeremiah the prophet records:


“I the LORD search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings.” (Jeremiah 17:10)

What does the New Testament teach about Jesus that identifies him with Jehovah whom Jeremiah spoke? Consider what John says in Revelation 2:23:


“…I am he, which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.” (Revelation 2:23)

In addition, consider the following claim of Christ:


“I and my Father are one.” (John 10:30)


“Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him.” (John 10:31)

Why did the Jews do this? Because Jesus was claiming to be Jehovah God this verse.

This is why the Jews said:


“The Jews answered him; saying, for a good work we stone thee not; bur for blasphemy: and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.” (John 10:33)

The Holy Spirit is called God in the following verses:


“But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the land? ...thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God.” (Acts 5:3-4)


“Know you not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?” (1Corinthians 3:16)


“Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, Today if ye will hear his voice, Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness.” (Hebrews 3:7, 8)

As seen clearly from Acts 5:3-4 the Holy Spirit is a person who can be lied to. In John 14:26 the Holy Spirit is sent to teach the apostles and bring things to their remembrance. This is proof that the Holy Spirit is an intelligent member of the Godhead, hence a person.

The Holy Spirit is Jehovah:

Now the Lord [Kyrios] is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord [Kyrios] is, there is liberty. (2Corinthians 3:17)

The Greek word Kyrios is used in the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Old Testament) to translate Jehovah. Kyrios is translated in English with the word “Lord.”

God is the creator. All three persons are involved in creation:


“But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him, and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.” (1Corinthians 8:6) (Father)


“All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made.” (John 1:3) (Son)


“The spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.” (Job 33:4) (Spirit)

All three persons share the attributes of deity. For example, all three persons are omniscient:


“Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.” (Acts 15:18) (Father)


“And he said unto him, Lord thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love thee.” (John 21:17b) (Son)


“But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, and the deep things of God.” (1Corinthians 2:10) (Spirit)

All three persons are omnipotent:


“And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.” (Revelation 19:6) (Father)


“And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, all power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.” (Matthew 28:18) (Son)


“And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee:... For with God nothing shall be impossible.” (Luke 1:35, 37) (Spirit)

All three persons are omnipresent:


“Can any hide himself in secret places that I shall not see him? Saith the LORD. Do not I fill heaven and earth?” (Jeremiah 23:24) (Father)


“...and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world, Amen.” (Matthew 28:20) (Son)


“Wither shall I go from thy spirit? Or whither shall I flee from thy presence?” (Psalms 139:7) (Spirit)

The Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit are all eternal:


“But now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith.” (Romans 16:26) (Father)


“Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and today, and forever.” (Hebrews 13:8) (Son)


“How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit...” (Hebrews 9:14) (Spirit)

All three persons of the Trinity dwell in us. Only God can do this:


“Jesus answered and said unto him, if a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.” (John 14:23) (Father)


“That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye being rooted and grounded in love.” (Ephesians 3:17) (Son)


“Even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him, for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.” (John 14:17) (Spirit)

All three persons of the Trinity were involved in the resurrection of Christ from the dead. Only God can raise the dead:


“Paul, An apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead.)” (Galatians 1:1) (Father)


“Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.... But he spoke of the temple of his body.” (John 2:18-20) (Son)


“For Christ also hath once suffered for sin, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit.” (1Peter 3:18) (Spirit)

We see all three persons at the baptism of Christ. These are persons, not modes of existence:


“And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him: And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” (Matthew 3:16-17)

We see all three persons at the Great Commission:


“Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” (Matthew 28:19)

We see all three persons in Paul's letter:


“The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen.” (2Corinthians 13:14)

There is one God Deuteronomy 6:4 and Jesus is YAHWEH.

Yahweh, the god of the Israelites, whose name was revealed to Moses as four Hebrew consonants (YHWH) called the Tetragrammaton. The Tetragrammaton became the Latinized name Jehovah.

In the Old Testament, “Yahweh” is translated, “LORD” in all capital letters.

In Exodus, 3:14 God uses “I AM” and “Yahweh” interchangeably. This is why “I am” is a legitimate way to translate the name “Yahweh.”

In light of Deuteronomy 6:4, consider the following titles that are used for God and Jesus:

God the Creator:


“The Spirit of God has made me, and the breath of the Almighty gives me life.” (Job 33:4 ESV) All Scriptures in section are from the English Standard Version.


“Have you not known? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary; his understanding is unsearchable.” (Isaiah 40:28)


“In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.” (Genesis 1:1)

Jesus the Creator:


“All things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made.” (John 1:3)


“For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities - all things were created through him and for him.” (Colossians 1:16)


Jesus is being compared to the angels, “And, “You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end.” (Hebrews 1:10-12)

God the Savior:


“They forgot God, their Savior, who had done great things in Egypt.” (Psalms 106:21)


“For I am the LORD your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior. I give Egypt as your ransom, Cush and Seba in exchange for you.” (Isaiah 43:3)


“Declare and present your case; let them take counsel together! Who told this long ago? Who declared it of old? Was it not I, the LORD? And there is no other god besides me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none besides me.” (Isaiah 45:21)

Jesus the Savior:


“They said to the woman, “It is no longer because of what you said that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is indeed the Savior of the world.” (John 4:42)


“And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.” (Acts 4:12)


“And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son to be the Savior of the world.” (1John 4:14)

God the King:


“But the LORD is the true God; he is the living God and the everlasting King. At his wrath the earth quakes and the nations cannot endure his indignation.” (Jeremiah 10:10)


“Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: “I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god.” (Isaiah 44:6)

Jesus the King:


“Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, where is he who has been born king of the Jews? For we saw his star when it rose and have come to worship him.” (Matthew 2:1-2)


“And Pilate asked him, “Are you the King of the Jews?” And he answered him, “You have said so.” (Luke 23:3)


“So the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews,’ but rather, ‘this man said, I am King of the Jews.’” (John 19:21)

God the Judge:


“Far be it from you to do such a thing, to put the righteous to death with the wicked, so that the righteous fare as the wicked! Far be that from you! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?” (Genesis 18:25)


“Let the nations stir themselves up and come up to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; for there I will sit to judge all the surrounding nations.” (Joel 3:12)


“And to the assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God, the judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect.” (Hebrews 12:23)

Jesus the Judge:


“For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may receive what is due for what he has done in the body, whether good or evil.” (2Corinthians 5:10)


“I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and by his appearing and his kingdom.” (2Timothy 4:1)

God the Great I Am:


“God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM.” And he said, “Say this to the people of Israel: ‘I AM has sent me to you.’” (Exodus 3:14)


“See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god beside me; I kill and I make alive; I wound and I heal; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand.” (Deuteronomy 32:39)

Jesus the Great I Am:


“Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am.”  (John 8:58)


“I am telling you now before it happens, so that when it comes to pass, you will believe that I am He.” (John 13:19”

God the Rock:


“For you have forgotten the God of your salvation and have not remembered the Rock of your refuge; therefore, though you plant pleasant plants and sow the vine-branch of a stranger.” (Isaiah 17:10)


“For who is God, but the LORD? And who is a rock, except our God?” (2Samuel 22:32)

Jesus the Rock:


“And all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ.” (1Corinthians 10:4)


“For it stands in Scripture: “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and whoever believes in him will not be put to shame. So the honor is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe, the stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone, and ‘A stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense.’ They stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do.” (1Peter 2:6-8)

God the Shepherd:


“The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want. He makes me lie down in green pastures.

He leads me beside still waters. He restores my soul. He leads me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies; you anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows. Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life, and I shall dwell in the house of the Lord forever.” (Psalms 23)

Jesus the Shepherd:


“I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.” (John 10:11)


“Now may the God of peace who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant.” (Hebrews 13:20)

God the Light:


“Your sun shall no more go down, nor your moon withdraw itself; for the LORD will be your everlasting light, and your days of mourning shall be ended.” (Isaiah 60:20)


“The LORD is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The LORD is the stronghold of my life; of whom shall I be afraid?” (Psalms 27:1)

Jesus the Light:


“The true light, which gives light to everyone, was coming into the world.” (John 1:9)


“Again Jesus spoke to them, saying, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.” (John 8:12)

God the First and Last:


“Thus says the LORD, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, the LORD of hosts: “I am the first and I am the last; besides me there is no god.” (Isaiah 44:6)


“Listen to me, O Jacob, and Israel, whom I called! I am he; I am the first, and I am the last.” (Isaiah 48:12)

Jesus the First and Last:


“When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand on me, saying, “Fear not, I am the first and the last.” (Revelation 1:17)


“I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.” (Revelation 22:13)

Part 3, a Conclusion:

Jesus is God, the Bible teaches that there are three persons who are called God, and yet the Bible is emphatic that there is only one God.

In conclusion, theologian Norman Geisler summarizes this conclusion:


•All three Persons possess the attribute of omnipresence (that is, all three are everywhere-present): the Father (Matthew 19:26), the Son (Matthew 28:18), and the Holy Spirit (Psalm 139:7).


•All three have the attribute of omniscience: the Father (Romans 11:33), the Son (Matthew 9:4), and the Holy Spirit (1Corinthians 2:10).


•All three have the attribute of omnipotence (that is, all three are all powerful): the Father (Jeremiah 32:27), the Son (Matthew 28:18), and the Holy Spirit (Romans 15:19).


•Holiness is ascribed to each of the three Persons: the Father (Revelation 15:4), the Son (Acts 3:14), and the Holy Spirit (John 16:7-14).


•Eternity is ascribed to all three Persons: the Father (Psalm 90:2), the Son (Micah 5:2; John 1:2; Revelation 1:8, 17), and the Holy Spirit (Hebrews 9:14).


•Each of the three Persons is individually described as the truth: the Father (John 7:28), the Son (Revelation 3:7), and the Holy Spirit (1John 5:6).


•As well, each of the three is called Lord (Romans 10:12; Luke 2:11; 2Corinthians 3:17), everlasting (Romans 16:26; Revelation 22:13; Hebrews 9:14), almighty (Genesis 17:1; Revelation 1:8; Romans 15:19), and powerful (Jeremiah 32:17; Hebrews 1:3; Luke 1:35).


Indeed, the Holy Spirit was present at the same time, revealing that they coexist. Further, the fact that they have separate titles (Father, Son, and Spirit) indicate that they are not one person. Also, each member of the Trinity has special functions that help us to identify them. For example, the Father planned salvation (John 3:16; Ephesians 1:4); the


Son accomplished it on the cross (John 17:4; 19:30; Heb. 1:1-2) and at the resurrection (Rom. 4:25; 1 Cor. 15:1-6), and the Holy Spirit applies it to the lives of the believers (John 3:5; Ephesians 4:30; Titus 3:5-7). The Son submits to the Father (1 Cor. 11:3; 15:28), and the Holy Spirit glorifies the Son (John 16:14). (4)

A further response to rationalist critics of God's triune nature Geisler says:


Critics make a point of computing the mathematical impossibility of believing there is a Father, Son and Holy Spirit in the Godhead, without holding that there are three gods. Does not 1+1+1=3? It certainly does if you add them, but Christians insist that the triunity of God is more like 1x1x1=1. God is triune, not triplex. His one essence has multiple centers of personhood. Thus, there is no more mathematical problem in conceiving the Trinity that there is in understanding 1 cubed (13). (5)

Confessional support from Westminster Larger Catechism Q&A 8-11


Q. 8. Are there more Gods than one?


A. There is but one only, the living and true God.


Q. 9. How many persons are there in the Godhead?


A. There be three persons in the Godhead, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one true, eternal God, the same in substance, equal in power and glory; although distinguished by their personal properties.


Q. 10. What are the personal properties of the three persons in the Godhead?


A. It is proper to the Father to beget the Son, and to the Son to be begotten of the Father, and to the Holy Ghost to proceed from the Father and the Son from all eternity.


Q. 11. How doth it appear that the Son and the Holy Ghost are God equal with the Father?


A. The Scriptures manifest that the Son and the Holy Ghost are God equal with the Father, ascribing unto them such names, attributes, works, and worship, as are proper to God only.

John Calvin on Gregory of Nazianzus an Eastern Church Patriarch on the Trinity:


“Again, Scripture sets forth a distinction of the Father from the Word and of the Word from the Spirit. Yet the greatness of the mystery warns us how much reverence and sobriety we ought to use in investigating this.


And that passage in Gregory of Nazianzus vastly delights me:


‘I cannot think on the one without quickly being encircled by the splendor of the three; nor can I discern the three without being straightway carried back to the one.’”


“Let us not, then, be led to imagine a trinity of persons that keeps our thoughts distracted and does not at once lead them back to that unity. Indeed, the words “Father,” “Son,” and “Spirit” imply a real distinction - let no one think that these titles, whereby God is variously designated from his works, are empty - but a distinction, not a division, The passages that we have already cited [e.g., Zechariah 13:7] show that the Son has a character distinct from the Father, because the Word would not have been with God unless he were another than the Father, nor would he have had his glory with the Father were he not distinct from the Father. . . .” (6)

 Therefore, there is only one God, and He is triune in nature.

 “To God, only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ forever. Amen.” (Romans 16:27) and “heirs according to the promise.” (Galatians 3:28, 29)


1.      C. S. Lewis, Mere Christianity, (New York, New York, MacMillan, 1952), p. 129.

2.      Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing                    Company, 1979), pp. 87-89.

3.      The Westminster Confession Of Faith Chap. II, 3. 1646.

4.      Norman L. Geisler, Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics, pp. 731-732.

5.      Norman L. Geisler, p. 732.

6.      Calvin, John, Institutes of the Christian Religion, (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), Book 1 Chapter 17, p. 141-142.


“To God, only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ forever. Amen.” (Romans 16:27) And “heirs according to the promise.” (Galatians 3:28, 29)

 Mr. Kettler has previously published articles in the Chalcedon Report and Contra Mundum. He and his wife Marea attend the Westminster, CO, RPCNA Church. Mr. Kettler is the author of the book defending the Reformed Faith against attacks, titled: The Religion That Started in a Hat. Available at: